Since their introduction in the early 1600s, honey bees have been an essential part of agriculture in North America. Production of honey is the most widely viewed benefit of honey bees. However, their value as pollinators far exceeds honey production.
The Virginia Bee Law authorizes an apiary inspection program which promotes the science of beekeeping, as well as regulates the movement of honey bees into the state and the sale of bees, queens and used bee equipment. The Virginia Bee Law requires that honey bees on combs, hives and equipment with combs must be accompanied by a certificate of health issued by the Office of Plant Industry Services prior to being sold in Virginia. In addition, any person who brings honey bees on combs or used equipment with comb into the Commonwealth must first obtain an Entry Permit from Virginia’s State Apiarist. Queens and packaged honey bees brought into the Commonwealth must be accompanied by a certificate of health issued by the state of origin.
To facilitate communication between beekeepers and agricultural producers and pesticides applicators VDACS has acquired BeeCheck™, Apiary Registry by FieldWatch®. The program is an on-line system for mapping apiary locations and providing beekeeper contact information. Participation is free and voluntary.
For interstate movement of hives, Virginia uses a uniform inspection certificate. Virginia also participates in the Mid-Atlantic States Agreement, which specifies inspection requirements for bee diseases and pests.
Office of Plant Industry Services staff members frequently give presentations, participate in demonstrations and conduct programs to educate the public about the importance of honey bees, beekeeping practices and pollination.
Click here for Office of Plant Industry Services contact information.
Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Office of Plant and Pest Services
P.O. Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23218
Website: http://www.vdacs.virginia.govState Apiarist Keith Tignor
Food establishments, including farmers' markets, that manufacture, process, pack or hold food for sale are subject to the Virginia Food Laws and related regulations.
Enforcement of these requirements includes regular periodic inspections of food establishments, including farmers' markets. VDACS’ Food Safety Specialists, also known as inspectors, ensure that any food or beverage manufactured, produced, processed, packed, exposed, offered, possessed or held for sale is safe for human consumption, and in compliance with the Virginia Food Laws and related regulations. Inspectors look for evidence of unsanitary conditions, mislabeling and the mishandling of food products that can lead to unsafe foods. Manufacturers are subject to unannounced inspections and sampling. Vendors and market managers are encouraged to contact the VDACS Food Safety Program office with questions concerning safe food handling practices.
Food service vendors at farmers' markets are permitted by the Virginia Department of Health.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) defines cosmetics by their intended use, as "articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body...for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance" [FD&C Act, sec. 201(i)]. Among the products included in this definition are skin moisturizers, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, cleansing shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, and deodorants, as well as any substance intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product.
The FD&C Act defines drugs, in part, by their intended use, as "articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease" and "articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals" [FD&C Act, sec. 201(g)(1)].
Some products meet the definitions of both cosmetics and drugs. This may happen when a product has two intended uses. For example, a shampoo is a cosmetic because its intended use is to cleanse the hair. An antidandruff treatment is a drug because its intended use is to treat dandruff. Consequently, an antidandruff shampoo is both a cosmetic and a drug. Among other cosmetic/drug combinations are toothpastes that contain fluoride, deodorants that are also antiperspirants, and moisturizers and makeup marketed with sun-protection claims. Such products must comply with the requirements for both cosmetics and drugs.
The FD&C Act does not recognize any such category as "cosmeceuticals." A product can be a drug, a cosmetic, or a combination of both, but the term "cosmeceutical" has no meaning under the law.
Intended use may be established in a number of ways. The following are some examples:
This principle also holds true for "essential oils." For example, a fragrance marketed for promoting attractiveness is a cosmetic. But a fragrance marketed with certain "aromatherapy" claims, such as assertions that the scent will help the consumer sleep or quit smoking, meets the definition of a drug because of its intended use. Similarly, a massage oil that is simply intended to lubricate the skin and impart fragrance is a cosmetic, but if the product is intended for a therapeutic use, such as relieving muscle pain, it's a drug.
The following information is not a complete treatment of cosmetic or drug laws and regulations. It is intended only to alert you to some important differences between the laws and regulations for cosmetics and drugs in the areas of approval, good manufacturing practice, registration, and labeling. Questions regarding laws and regulations for drugs should be directed to FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER).
How approval requirements are different
Under the FD&C Act, cosmetic products and ingredients, with the exception of color additives, do not require FDA approval before they go on the market. Drugs, however, must generally either receive premarket approval by FDA through the New Drug Application (NDA) process or conform to a "monograph" for a particular drug category, as established by FDA's Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drug Review. These monographs specify conditions whereby OTC drug ingredients are generally recognized as safe and effective, and not misbranded. Certain OTC drugs may remain on the market without an NDA approval until a monograph for its class of drugs is finalized as a regulation. However, once FDA has made a final determination on the status of an OTC drug category, such products must either be the subject of an approved NDA [FD&C Act, sec. 505(a) and (b)], or comply with the appropriate monograph for an OTC drug. (A note on the term "new drug": Despite the word "new," a "new drug" may have been in use for many years. If a product is intended for use as a drug, it must comply with the requirements outlined above.)
What do these terms mean?
You can find information on FDA's website, under "Development and Approval Process (Drugs)," especially "How Drugs Are Developed and Approved." If you still have questions about NDAs and OTC monographs, or any other aspect of drug regulation, please contact CDER. You can contact CDER's Division of Drug Information, Small Business Assistance at CDERSmallBusiness@fda.hhs.gov or, for general drug-related inquiries, CDER's Division of Drug Information at email@example.com.
How good manufacturing practice requirements are different
Good manufacturing practice (GMP) is an important factor in helping to assure that your cosmetic products are neither adulterated nor misbranded. However, while FDA has provided guidelines for cosmetic GMP (see "Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Guidelines/Inspection Checklist"), no regulations set forth specific GMP requirements for cosmetics. In contrast, the law requires strict adherence to GMP requirements for drugs, and there are regulations specifying minimum current GMP requirements for drugs [Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 210 and 211]. Failure to follow GMP requirements causes a drug to be adulterated [FD&C Act, sec. 501(a)(2)(B)].
How registration requirements are different
FDA maintains the Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program, or VCRP, for cosmetic establishments and formulations [21 CFR 710 and 720]. As its name indicates, this program is voluntary. The FD&C Act does not require cosmetic firms to register their establishments or list their product formulations with FDA. In contrast, it is mandatory for drug firms to register their establishments and list their drug products with FDA [FD&C Act, sec. 510; 21 CFR 207]. See Drug Listing and Registration System (DRLS and eDRLS).
How labeling requirements are different
A cosmetic product must be labeled according to cosmetic labeling regulations. See the Cosmetic Labeling Manual for guidance on cosmetic labeling and links to the regulations related to cosmetic labeling. OTC drugs must be labeled according to OTC drug regulations, including the "Drug Facts" labeling, as described in 21 CFR 201.66Combination OTC drug/cosmetic products must have combination OTC drug/cosmetic labeling. For example, the drug ingredients must be listed alphabetically as "Active Ingredients," followed by cosmetic ingredients, listed in descending order of predominance as "Inactive Ingredients."
Soap is a category that needs special explanation. That's because the regulatory definition of "soap" is different from the way in which people commonly use the word. Products that meet the definition of "soap" are exempt from the provisions of the FD&C Act because—even though Section 201(i)(1) of the act includes "articles...for cleansing" in the definition of a cosmetic—Section 201(i)(2) excludes soap from the definition of a cosmetic.
How FDA defines "soap"
Not every product marketed as soap meets FDA's definition of the term. FDA interprets the term "soap" to apply only when
Products that meet this definition of soap are regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), not by FDA. Please direct questions about these products, such as safety and labeling requirements, to CPSC.
If a cleanser does not meet all of these criteria...
If a product intended to cleanse the human body does not meet all the criteria for soap, as listed above, it is either a cosmetic or a drug. For example:
If a product
it is regulated as a cosmetic. Examples of cosmetic uses include making the user more attractive, by acting as a deodorant, imparting fragrance to the user, or moisturizing the skin.
If a product
it is regulated as a drug, or possibly both a drug and a cosmetic. Examples include antibacterial cleansers and cleansers that are also intended to treat acne.
If a product
it may be identified in labeling as soap, but it is regulated as a cosmetic.
Candles: Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand dipped or molded are exempt from the requirements of §500.7 of this chapter which specifies that the net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of count and measure (e.g., length and diameter), to the extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of §500.7 of this chapter for these candles will be met by an expression of count and length or height in inches.